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Epithermal Ore Deposits Formation

The term "hydrothermal" is used to describe geologically heated water, hot magmatic liquids rich in water content, or the alteration, rocks, and mineral deposits formed by these liquids. When considering mineral deposits, hydrothermal is defined as a concentrated, separated, alkali chloride-rich electrolyte solution (Jensen and Bateman, 1981).

Hydrothermal: Refers to hot waters that are the main constituents of Na, K, Ca, and Cl, with secondary components Mg, B, S, Sr, CO2, H2S, NH4, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Mo, Ag, and Au, formed by meteoric waters descending from above (Superjacent) or metamorphic and magmatic liquids rising from below to the surface (Hypogenic), heating between 50-500 ºC. The fluid is defined as a phase that is at supercritical temperature and does not contain any liquid.

Hydrothermal solutions can originate from pure magmatic, metamorphic, meteoric, marine, and sedimentary sources, or from a combination of two or all of these sources (Figure-1).

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Relationship Between Magma and Hydrothermal Systems

Hydrothermal systems, like magmatic systems, consist of fluids and crystalline phases in varying proportions. The transition from a magmatic to a hydrothermal system is a direct result of the decompre


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